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The NASA Twins                                                                               17 April, 2019
- Dr. Sonia Bedi


Astronaut brothers, Scott and Mark Kelly, are new subjects of NASA’s Life-science program to understand how the human body responds to spaceflight over a long time. These twin brothers, with identical genome composition and similar life experiences, presented a golden opportunity to NASA to study how low-gravity and high-radiation environment could affect a human body. The study included a battery of tests comparing genetic, biochemical and other changes between these two brothers where one of them, Scott, flew for 340 consecutive days on the international space station during the study, whereas the other twin stayed back. Scott had clocked in 520 days in space whereas Mark had flown in space for a total of 54 days, interspersed into four years. The verdict of the study indicated that the genetic changes observed in Scott before the space travel had reversed on his arrival to Earth. The researcher concluded such alterations might have been triggered due to the switch in the environment.


On the contrary, exposure to high radiations in the outer space did lead to some DNA damage in Scott's genome. However, the most remarkable observation of this study was Scotts lengthened telomere during the spaceflight which shortened within 48 hours of his return to Earth. His telomere is now shorter than the pre-flight length which predisposes him to increased risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer.


As this study involved just two people, further rigorous experiments need to be performed to come to a definite conclusion of genetic changes in the human body during space journeys. Nonetheless, this finding throws light on the mysterious ways of molecular workings in the human body and how little we understand the ways of the body.


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The “Three-parent” baby                                                                           16 April, 2019

- Dr. Sonia Bedi


A recent uproar on the social platforms regarding the Greek “three-parent” baby provides us an opportunity to understand the immense power of Bio-technological tools in current times. The “Three-parent” baby is a result of an assisted reproductive technology, which is a culmination of mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT) and In-vitro fertilization (IVF). This innovative technique is an answer to the prayers of all the mothers carrying disease causing mutations in mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) desiring to have a healthy baby. The MRT technique entails modification of human oocytes and zygotes to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases from mother to child. This prevention is ensued by exchanging diseases mitochondria of the prospective mother with those of a healthy, unrelated donor (the third parent).  The first successful implementation of this technique was in the case of Jordanian parents, where the mother carried the genes for Leigh syndrome (the disease causing genes reside in the mitochondria) with a healthy baby boy in 2016. The U.K became the first country approving and legalizing this technique (case-by-case basis) in 2015. Since then 15 applications have been received by the U.Ks Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), of which 14 have been approved. So far, only a few countries like Ukraine and Greece have approved this technique and using nuclear transfer technology for infertility cases. A major debate looms over USA to legalize this path-breaking technique, as 1000 to 4000 births per year have been reported for mitochondrial diseases. Though this technique addresses the desire of a women to have a genetically related child with reduced risk of mtDNA disease, it raises a controversial question on ethical, social and policy issues.













Mitochondrial Replacement therapy (MRT) via spindle transfer method employed for the first “three parent” baby in 2015 by US-based team of Dr John Zhang (New hope Fertility Centre, New York city). Image sourced from



  1. Live birth derived from oocyte spindle transfer to prevent mitochondrial disease. Zhang et al, 2017. Reproductive Biomedicine online.





New Era of Medical Genetics and Molecular Diagnostics                        15 April, 2019

- Dr. Sonia Bedi

A marvel of 21st-century engineering, Parallel sequencing, empowers clinicians by providing a genome-wide view of a patient’s genetic make-up making the diagnosis of genetic disorders and identification of various diseases including cancer efficient, fast and cheap.

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G-Cell Disclaimer and Privacy Policy

G-Cell Disclaimer and Privacy Policy 
The material provided is for educational purposes only. Whilst the material in this eLearning program has been carefully prepared by the authors, it is not tailored to any particular patient‟s/research subject‟s circumstances. It may be used as a guide but it is not a substitute for current scientific research and clinical guidelines/evidence and expert opinion in relation to decision making in scientific research or clinical practice. It is the intent of the authors to provide evidence-based best practice where this exists. Readers are encouraged to seek information and advice regarding local practices in their own institutions. G-Cell by Molsys Private Limited, any of the associated organisations, and authors of the eLearning program do not make any express or implied representation or warranty in relation to the completeness, accuracy, suitability or currency of the information provided. These persons are not liable in contract, tort (including negligence) or otherwise, for any direct, indirect, special or consequential loss or damages arising in connection with the use or reliance upon the information contained in this eLearning program, or any products or services referred to herein. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. values your trust. In order to honour that trust, G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. adheres to ethical standards in gathering, using, and safeguarding any information you provide. 
Molsys Private Limited (operating under the brandname G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD.), is a leading genomics company, incorporated in India, for imparting learning. For the sake of brevity of understanding this Privacy Policy the company will be hereinafter referred as G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD.. 
This privacy policy governs your use of the application „G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD.-The Learning Portal‟ (“Application Portal”), (“Website”) and the other associated/ancillary applications, products, websites and services managed by the Company, Molsys Private Limited. 
Please read this privacy policy (“Policy“) carefully before using the Application, Website, its services and products, along with the Terms of Use (“ToU“) provided on the Application and on the Website. Your use of the Website, Application, or services in connection with the Application, Website or products (“Services“), or registrations with us through any mode or use of any products including that of SD cards, tablets or other storage/transmitting device shall signify your acceptance of this Policy and your agreement to be legally bound by the same. For the sake of brevity your use of „G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD.-„The Learning App‟ in any electronic form or device shall be bound by the terms and conditions enumerated and agreed upon here under with wilful and free consent. 
If you wish not to agree with any of the terms and conditions of this Policy, kindly refrain from using the Website, Application or its products or until satisfaction for you to use the same by its Sales/Marketing/Technical/Legal Team, avail any of these services. 

User Provided Information 
The Application/Website/Services/products records the information you provide when you download and register for the Application or Services or products. When you register with us, you generally provide (a) your name, age, email address, phone number, password and your ward‟s educational interests; (b) transaction-related information, such as when you make purchases, respond to any offers, or download or use applications from us; (c) information you provide us when you contact us for help; (d) information you enter into its system when using the Application/Services/products, such as while asking doubts, participating in discussions and taking tests. The said information collected from the users could be categorized as “Personal Information“, “Sensitive Personal Information” and “Associated Information“. Personal Information, Sensitive Personal Information and Associated Information (each as individually defined under this Information Technology (Reasonable security practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information) Rules, 2011 (the “Data Protection Rules“)) shall collectively be referred to as “Information” in this Policy. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. may use this Information to contact you from time to time, to provide you with the Services, important information, required notices and marketing promotions. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will request you when it need more information that personally identifies you (personal information) or allows us to contact you. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will not differentiate between who is using the device to access the Application, Website or Services or products, so long as the log in/access credentials match with yours. In order to make the best use of the Application/Website/Services/products and enable your Information to be captured accurately on the Application/Website/Services/products, it is essential that you have logged in using your own credentials. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will, at all times, provide the option to you, not to provide the Personal Information or Sensitive Personal Information, which it seeks from you. Further, you can, at any time while using the Application/Services/products, also have an option to withdraw your consent given earlier to it, to use such Personal Information or Sensitive Personal Information. Withdrawal of the consent by you is required to be sent in writing to us at the contact details provided in this Policy below. In any such event, G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. or the Company fully reserves the right to withdraw further usage of the Application/Website or provide any further Services/products thereunder to you. 
Automatically Collected Information 
In addition, the Application/products/Services may collect certain information automatically, including, but not limited to, the type of mobile device you use, your mobile devices unique device ID, the IP address of your mobile device, your mobile operating system, the type of mobile Internet browsers you use, and information about the way you use the Application/Services/products. As is true for most Mobile applications, G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. also collects other relevant information as per the permissions that you provide. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. uses an outside credit card processing company to bill you for the goods and services availed by you. These companies do not retain, share, store or use personally identifiable information of you for any other purpose. 
Use of your Personal Information 

G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. uses the collected Information to analyse trends, to conduct research, to administer the Application/Services and products, to learn about each user‟s learning patterns and movements around the Application/Services and products and to gather demographic information and usage behaviour about its user base as a whole. Aggregated and individual, anonymized and nonanonymized data may periodically be transmitted to external service providers to help us improve the Application, products and its Services. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will share your information with third parties only in the ways that are described below in this Policy. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. may use the individual data and behaviour patterns combined with personal information to provide you with personalized content, and better your learning objectives/experience. Third parties provide certain services which we may use to analyze the data and information you provide to personalize, drive insights and help it better your experience or reach out to you with more value added applications, products, information and services. However, these third party companies do not have any independent right to share this information. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. does not sell, trade or rent your Information to any third party unless, we have been expressly authorized by you either in writing or electronically to do so. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. may at times provide aggregate statistics about its customers, traffic patterns, and related site information to reputable third parties, however this information when disclosed will be in an aggregate form and does not contain any of your Personally Identifiable Information. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will occasionally send email notices or contact you to communicate about its Services, products and benefits, as they are considered an essential part of the Services/products you have chosen. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. may disclose Information: 
• as required by law, such as to comply with a subpoena, or similar legal process; 
• to enforce applicable ToU, including investigation of potential violations thereof; 
• when it believes in good faith (doctrine of uberrima fides) that the disclosure is necessary to protect its rights, protect your safety or the safety of others, investigate fraud, address security or technical issues or respond to a government request; 
• with its trusted services providers who work on its behalf, do not have an independent use of the information G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. discloses to them, and have agreed to and adhered to the rules set forth in this Policy; 
• to protect against imminent harm to the rights, property or safety of the Application/Website/ Molsys Private Limited or its users or the public as required or permitted by law; 
• with third party service providers in order to personalize the Application/Website/Services/products for a better user experience and to perform behavioural analysis; 
Any portion of the Information containing personal data relating to minors provided by you shall be deemed to be given with the consent of the minor‟s legal guardian. Such consent is deemed to be provided by your registration with G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD.. 
Access to your Personal Information G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will provide you with the means to ensure that your Personal Information is correct and current. If you have filled out a user profile, it will provide an obvious way for you to access and change your profile from its Application/Services/Website/products. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. adopts stringent security measures to protect your password from being exposed or disclosed to anyone. Only upon you forgetting the password for its Application/Website or Services, G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. will have a right to reset the same to you with your prior approval as per standard web practices.  
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. send cookies (small files containing a string of characters) to your computer, thereby uniquely identifying your browser. Cookies are used to track your preferences, help you login faster, and aggregated to determine user trends. This data is used to improve its offerings, such as providing more content in areas of greater interest to a majority of users. 
Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies, but you can reset your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. 
Some of G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. features and services may not function properly if your cookies are disabled. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. may present links in a format that enables us to keep track of whether these links have been followed. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. uses this information to improve its customized content. Clicking on links may take you to sites outside its domain. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. are not responsible for the privacy practices of other web sites. G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. encourage its users to be aware when they leave its site to read the EULA/T&Cs of each and every web site that collects personally identifiable information. This Privacy Policy applies solely to information collected by its Website. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. may alert you by email or phone (through sms/call) to inform you about new service offerings or other information which it perceives might be useful for you. 
Public Forums 
When you use certain features on its website like the discussion forums and you post or share your personal information such as comments, messages, files, photos, will be available to all users, and will be in the public domain. All such sharing of information is done at your own risk. Please keep in mind that if you disclose personal information in your profile or when posting on its forums this information may become publicly available. 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. are concerned about safeguarding the confidentiality of your Information. GCELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. provide physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Information it processes and maintain. An illustration being, G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. limits access to this Information to authorized employees only who need to know that information in order to operate, develop or improve its Application/Services/products/Website. Please be aware that, although G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. endeavour is to provide stringent security, for information it possesses and maintains, no security system can prevent all potential security breaches.  

How long does G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. retain user data? 
Currently, G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. retains user data while an account is active and for at least three years afterwards. It may alter this practice according to legal and business requirements. For example, it may lengthen the retention period for some data if needed to comply with law or voluntary codes of conduct. Unless otherwise prohibited, it may shorten the retention period for some types of data if needed to free up storage space. 
Log information 
When you access G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. Website, its servers automatically record information that your browser sends whenever you visit a website. These server logs may include information such as your web request, internet protocol address, browser type, browser language, the date and time of your request and one or more cookies that may uniquely identify your browser. 
User communications 
When you send an email or other communication to G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD., it may retain those communications in order to process your inquiries, respond to your requests and improve our Services. 
Changes to this Statement 
As the Company (Molsys Private Limited) evolves, its privacy policy will need to evolve as well to cover new situations. You are advised to review this Policy regularly for any changes, as continued use is deemed approval of all changes. 
Your Consent 
G-CELL BY MOLSYS PVT. LTD. believes that, every user of our Application/Services/Products/Website must be in a position to provide an informed consent prior to providing any Information required for the use of the Application/Services/Products/Website. By registering with it, you are expressly consenting to its collection, processing, storing, disclosing and handling of your information as set forth in this Policy now and as amended by us. Processing, your information in any way, including, but not limited to, collecting, storing, deleting, using, combining, sharing, transferring and disclosing information, all of which activities will take place in India. If you reside outside India your information will be transferred, processed and stored in accordance with the applicable data protection laws of India. 

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